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1.01 Class 4 ? Flammable Solids

An in-depth look at one of the nine classes of dangerous and hazardous goods: Class 4 – Flammable Solids


There are a total of nine dangerous/hazardous goods that we use within the logistics industry. Each product, when transported, can pose risk to safety – whether that be to personal health or environmentally. Depending on the type of damage said product deals and what they are formed of, they are divided into one of the nine classes.

On the Sky Fly website, you will find information in respect of each class of the nine classes of dangerous goods. If you want a full overview of the dangerous goods topic before delving in to the specifics.


Class 4 Dangerous Goods are flammable solids. This category of hazardous cargo represents substances which are liable to spontaneous combustion and goods that emit flammable gases when they come into contact with water.

Metal powders are particularly hazardous as they are more difficult to extinguish when on fire. A lot of extinguishers contain Carbon Dioxide or water; however, both of these could increase the danger when used on a flammable metal.


Like the majority of the classes of dangerous goods and as briefly touched on above, flammable solids are also placed into their own sub-divisions, in which there are three.

Division 4.1: Flammable solids

Goods that fall under division 4.1 will burn extremely easily, much easier than your ordinary combustible material such as wood and paper. In fact, some items that fall under sub division 4.1 are desensitised explosives such as trinitrotoluene (TNT). Without the densitisation, products such as TNT would fall under Class 1 – Explosives.

Division 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneously combust

Division 4.2 can be complex in that these goods can be either solids or liquids. Dissimilar to Class 3 however, these will ignite spontaneously when in contact with oxygen. These materials need to be kept in airtight packages or as liquids under an inert gas/liquid blanket at all times.

Division 4.3: Dangerous when wet (Substances that emit flammable gases when they come into contact with water)

Division 4.3 hazardous goods do exactly as they say on the tin, they react with water and become dangerous when wet, generating flammable gas. This gas can be ignited by the heat of the reaction and must be kept in watertight containers that are hermetically sealed to avoid the entry of moisture or water vapour.


There are three commonly used dangerous goods labels that you are likely to see used for flammable solids. Each signage is significant to one of the three sub divisions noted above; Division 4.1, Division 4.2 and Division 4.3. All the labels can be seen pictured below.


1.02 Incoterms Delivered Duty Paid

An in-depth guide on the incoterm; Delivered Duty Paid...


Delivered Duty Paid is one of the 11 official incoterms. In this ruling, the seller is responsible for all the risk and costs involved with transporting the goods from origin through to an agreed location agreed with the buyer in advance. This will usually be the premises or warehouse of the buyer.


Delivered Duty Paid can be used with any transport mode, or where there is more than one singular mode of transport. 


Within this incoterm, the seller is responsible for arranging carriage and the delivery of goods to a named place, which is agreed in advance with the buyer. The seller is not just responsible for the full transportation of goods. The seller must also settle all costs associated with the customs clearance at destination. This includes the customs clearance itself along with any applicable import taxes (such as VAT in the UK) and any customs duty. Within DDP, risk only transfers to the buyer when the goods are ready for at the agreed point.


  • Delivered Duty Paid can be used with any transport mode.
  • DDP can prove highly problematic for a seller as it is the only incoterm which requires the seller to take responsibility for import clearance and payment of taxes and import duty at the end destination.
  • In some countries, clearing methods are complex and extremely strict and best handled by the buyer than the seller. 


2.03 Our Shipping Services To Malawi

For over twenty years Sky Fly Logistics have been offering our shipping to Malawi service for the African diaspora in the INDIA.

During those years we have built a well-earned reputation for providing a first class air freight service to both Lilongwe and Blantyre airports. We understand that many people have been struggling to find a reliable company who can handle the shipping to Malawi of their personal goods.


You need look no further than our own service. Leaving the India every week to Lilongwe and Blantyre airports with a transit time of less than one week why would you need to look for anyone else?

You can view our rates and services on our dedicated Malawi page and even use our instant online calculator to get a better idea of rates.


And did you know that we offer a free collection service from Mumbai? Free of charge, we can't do it any cheaper than that! Once you are ready to confirm your order you can contact us by phone or simply use our online booking facility. At Sky Fly Logsitics we like to utilise all modern customer friendly facilities and so you can even pay online once we have calculated the cost of your shipment. A modern company using modern methods for the modern African community - shipping to Malawi from the India has never been easier. If you are shipping to Malawi, please contact our excess baggage team.



1.03 How To Reduce Excess Baggage

Whether you’re heading away on business, travelling abroad for an extended period of time, or are heading overseas to study, there’s no doubt that many people panic when it concerns what to take and how to reduce excess baggage.

That said however, there are a number of ways that you can reduce the amount of excess baggage, which will help reduce your overall travel costs.


Quite often, we find that the main reason people have trouble with excess baggage is that they take far too many belongings that they simply don’t need. From entire collections of books, through to kitchenware, we’ve seen it all, which is why we always advise people to take only what is essential so that they can lower the costs of heading abroad. A few weeks before organising your excess baggage requirements, make a list of items that you want to take and cross out any that you are not likely to need or use. By doing this, you can reduce the number of items that you will travel with.


Whether you’re packing clothes or study books, making the most of the space inside your suitcase or packaging is essential. For clothes, gather all the items that you think are essential and lose any that you might not wear. Remember that knits, wools, and cottons resist wrinkles and are fairly versatile when it comes to packing. Roll your softer garments, including underwear, t-shirts, knitwear, and jeans, as these do not wrinkle when rolled tightly. Such items should be placed in a suitcase or box carton first. Stiffer fabrics, such as cotton shirts and blazers should be folded carefully and placed in afterwards. When it comes to bags that you will travel with personally, pack chargers and other small items into shoes so that you can maximise space.


More often than not, we find that people will use previously bought suitcases to send excess baggage, which means that for the trip in question, that the cases might not be best suited for their needs. It’s quite common for people to use two smaller and tightly packed suitcases. However, most of the time, one large suitcase should be enough for most people, and can help cut costs. It’s also worth mentioning that we also provide a great array of packing materials, which are specially designed for long periods of travel.


No matter where you’re travelling to, the likelihood is that we offer a variety of excess baggage options for your personal belongings. For example, if you’re travelling to Australia, you can send your excess baggage using a variety of methods, including:

  • By air
  • By sea
  • By our door to door by air service

Bear in mind however, that our sea freight services can sometimes involve a travel time of up to eight weeks, so if you’re looking to use this service for your excess baggage, you need to plan and prepare well in advance.


1.04 Top Tips For Moving Abroad

Whether you’re going to live abroad as part of your retirement plans, for new work, or just to travel, moving to another country can be one of the most exciting chapters of a person’s life.

It goes without saying that while helping people forward their belongings and excess baggage, we’ve picked up a lot of stories, as well as a few tips and tricks along the way when it concerns living abroad. With that in mind, here is Sky Fly Logistics top tips for living in another country:


No matter which country you’re moving to, ensure that you give enough time to plan every last detail. From sending your belongings via one of our air or sea freight services, to making sure that you have the right paperwork and documents ahead of your move, rigorous planning is always recommended so that you can overcome any eventuality. When it comes to money, ensure that you have not only enough to fulfil your visa requirements, but also so that you have a fall-back option in case anything goes wrong. You can work out how much the average cost of living might be, using sites such as Nomad List, which gives you financial filters and data depending on where and how you want to live.


There’s no doubt that when you move abroad, there’s a honeymoon period where everything seems perfect and exciting, but after a few weeks or months this feeling can start to fade. Depending on the country, or even the area that you’re moving to, there can be unforeseen headaches, such as making a doctor’s appointment, or renewing a prescription, which can take a little while to figure out. There’s also the cultural difference that you’ll experience on a day to day basis, which will take time to overcome. Most expats report giving it at least six months before they fully acclimatise with their surroundings and begin really settling in to their new way of life.


While discussing settling into your environment, it goes without saying that one of the best ways to do this is to simply “live like one of the locals”. Whereas tourists generally don’t get much time to really engrain themselves in the areas that they visit, a person living in a new city or town can really start to explore and enjoy the local way of doing things after a couple of weeks or so. Instead of heading to chain restaurants and bars, take the time out to try the independent way of life and shop and dine locally when you can. If there are any local clubs, sports events, or gatherings, try attending some to introduce yourself to other people and get to know the folks who live in your area.


Whether you’re having the best time of your life, or finding living abroad a little harder than you imagined, remember to stay in touch with people back home so that you can stay updated on what’s happening, as well as being able to provide your loved ones with an insight on your life. There are a great many free apps and technologies that you can use for this including WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, and Skype. If you fancy it, you could even surprise people with good old-fashioned letters and postcards as extra treats.


1.05 Shipping For Christmas- Getting It Sent On Time

There’s no doubt that for many, Christmas is well and truly one of the busiest times of the year, and this is no different for the freight forwarding industry.

In fact, when it comes to forwarding, there are generally two peak seasons, the first of which occurs during the summer, when many people send excess baggage and packages abroad during the holiday season, and the other of course, is Christmas. No matter how busy we might be however, Sky Fly Logistics strives to offer the best possible service to all its customers and maintains all transit times as quoted at the beginning of the service.


Although it would be a little late to use our specialist sea freight service to get packages to destinations in time for Christmas, our air freight service is ready and waiting to send any presents or packages you might have to anywhere in the world.

Bear in mind that most destinations have a transit time of around seven days, although it is always best to add a window of three extra days for peace of mind.


As well as Christmas being much busier, it is also the time when people send more packages and gifts to destinations around the world. With this in mind, it is important to know what should and should not be sent to destinations using air freight.


Although security around airports is very tight, which means that the risk of theft is far lower, each and every package must be screened by airport personnel, who will look for dangerous and hazardous goods that should not be sent via air freight.

Dangerous goods

There are certain goods that are regarded as “dangerous items”, even if they seem quite harmless. It is therefore against the law to send dangerous items via air freight if they have not been declared on a shipper’s inventory. If you happen to be sending dangerous goods, and they have been confirmed in the above document, they must be packed and handled accordingly. It’s also worth pointing out that dangerous goods are also more expensive to send. Items that are often considered to be dangerous in nature are perfumes, aftershaves, aerosols, paints, and corrosives. You can find a full list of what is considered to be hazardous and or dangerous. It is the responsibility of the customer to ensure that such items are not shipped alongside personal effects without being brought to our attention.

Valuable cargo

From cash, right through to traveller’s cheques, stamp collections, jewellery, and watches, these are highly valuable items that are not permitted to travel with Sky Fly Logistics.

Waste materials

Although it’s unlikely that you would send waste materials via air freight (especially in the form of Christmas presents), there are strict anti-dumping laws that prevent the shipping of scrap metals and used tyres.


Of course, everyone wants to know that their packages are getting to their destinations safe and sound, which is why Sky Fly Logistics offers a great variety of packing and packaging for your shipping needs. Including a range of different sized cartons, bubble wrap, and polystyrene fillings, find out more about what we offer to protect your packages. When it comes to insurance, Sky Fly Logistics does not offer this service, but we can help you get in touch with a specialist insurance company should you request one.


2.02 Shipping Services To South Korea

At last! You’ve finally finished your exams and you’re looking forward to going back home to South Korea. However, as soon as you start to pack your things away for the long journey home you suddenly realise “too much stuff…… I need to find a safe company to do my shipping to Korea.”

Sky Fly Logistics have a long and well established reputation within the international student community. We have been shipping to South Korea for many years.


Instead of paying expensive excess baggage charges you can use our air freight services to either InchonBusan or Cheju airports. Our cheap and reliable
service arrives at your local airport within a few days so there is no need to wait for slow sea freight services. Shipping to Korea has never been easier. 
You can check out your own price by using our instant online calculatorOnce we have collected your excess luggage you can pay online using our secure online payment facility and then you can track the progress of your shipment all the way to your local airport. The days are long gone when you have to carry your heavy bags with you paying expensive excess baggage costs at the airport. Let Tudor do your shipping whilst you sit back, relax and enjoy your flight home. Visit our South Korea page for more details or contact us for a quotation.



1.06 What are Customs Procedure Codes (CPC)

A Customs Procedure Code (CPC) is a pre-defined HMRC code that is required to describe the purpose of your overseas shipment.

The code is used to determine how your shipment will be processed and how the duties and taxes, if applicable, will be collected. Smooth and timely transportation of goods and products is, more often that not, dependent on the quality of the accompanying paperwork. So, ensuring you have the correct CPC assigned is very important. Use of the wrong code could result in incorrect duties being applied. 


  • Is your shipment a straightforward commercial transaction - the sale of goods to another party?
  • Are you transporting samples to potential customers?
  • Do you have an item that needs repair and needs to be shipped to the original manufacturer?
  • Are you a tradesman working overseas requiring tools and machinery to be transported to the working destination?

Customs Duties are not payable on all of the above examples so if the wrong CPC is assigned the shipment could be delayed and duties incorrectly applied.  Unclear, incorrect and incomplete customs declarations can cause long delays that can easily be avoided by understanding and using the correct CPC on the customs declaration. A shipment cannot be released for delivery until customs have established whether duties and taxes apply.


If you are unsure which code to apply provide a brief written statement on your customs declaration and shipment instruction, describing what you are transporting and why, and your freight forwarder will apply the correct code. 


2.01 Our Shipping Services within India

Sky Fly International have been shipping within India since our inception in 1995. Indian students who have finished their studies and are returning home are one of our largest group of customers.

Ever since the formation of Sky Fly International Freight in 1995 Indian students have played a large role in our success story. Even in the early days groups of students who had personal effects which they wanted shipping from one state to another state in India after graduation would contact us every Summer. Students studying in the India far from home knew they could trust us to safely transport their luggage back home whether the destination was Mumbai, Chennai or Kolkata or any of the other fifteen different airports which we serve. You see, shipping within India is not as straightforward as some other companies seem to think. We have the experience and expertise which sets us apart from many other shipping companies. We know that the best way to avoid paying duties and taxes in India is to ensure that the owners of the goods in India is also the person who clears customs and collects from the local airport in India.


We know that it is important to pack your personal effects as safely as possible which is why we provide packing materials to those who might need them. We know that you want to know the approximate cost of your shipment before you make a booking. This is why we provide full details of the cost on our India page and why we also have the instant online calculator which shows you the different costs depending on the number of packages, weight and destination airport etc. Once you have had your quotation we make things easy for you by providing our online booking service. You can also ask questions online, pay online and track your shipment online. In short, for the modern students in India, Sky Fly Int. Freight are the modern shipping company which fits your needs. When you need an expert to help with your shipping within India, contact our team.


1.07 Dangerous Goods Classes & Regulations - Gases

An in-depth look at one of the nine classes of dangerous & hazardous goods - Class 2: Gases


There are a total of nine dangerous/hazardous goods classes that are used day in and day out within the logistics sector. Each item/product/good that when transported are a risk to safety, health or the environment needs to be categorised into one of those classes. On the Sky Fly Website you will find information in respect of each class of the nine dangerous goods categories. If you want a full overview of what you need to consider when shipping dangerous goods.


Class 2 of the nine dangerous goods is gases. This covers compressed gases, liquefied gases, dissolved gases, refrigerated liquefied gases, mixtures of gases and aerosol dispensers/articles containing gas. Gases are generally pressurised and it is this reason that makes them hazardous when transported by air, sea or road. If the pressure is suddenly released it can pose a serious threat. Gases can also be extremely flammable, whilst others can be toxic or corrosive to humans.

As you would expect, the transportation of gases is regulated and only trained personnel are able to pick up and deliver this type of hazardous cargo. In addition, a dangerous goods note must be completed by an individual who has carried out specific hazardous cargo training.


Gases can cause dire physical damage, for example; If a cylinder valve gets damaged, the escaping gas could be concentrated into a powerful jet making the cylinder take off like a rocket. Although a lot of gases can cause physical injury of this sort, fatal chemical damage can also be inflicted and therefore the class is split into sub-divisions. There are three sub-divisions of class 2 hazardous cargo which are as follows:

Division 2.1: Flammable Gases

Division 2.2: Non-Flammable / Non-Toxic Gases

Division 2.3: Toxic Gases


Commonly Transported Class 2 Gases: 

  • Hairspray
  • WD40
  • Deodorant
  • Oxygen
  • Helium (Compressed)
  • Fire Extinguisher 
  • Chlorine
  • Lighters


1.08 Ensuring Safe Carriage of Dangerous Goods

All you need to know about dangerous/hazardous goods…


Whether you are transporting paint, perfumes, batteries or a dangerous chemical; ensuring they are packed and labelled correctly is paramount to ensure smooth transportation in the safest and most professional way. These are all classed as dangerous goods and there are rules and regulations that must be adhered to when it comes to the transportation of these goods. We have compiled a ‘get to know’ guide on the nine materials that fall under the category of dangerous/hazardous goods and the requirements for their transportation. 


Dangerous goods are any items that can have a negative effect on human health, no matter how minute. These materials, if not properly controlled can present themselves with the cause of potential harm to either human health and safety, infrastructure and/or the means of transport which the items are present in. Dangerous goods also come under the ‘hazardous materials’ heading, both have the same meaning, just with a different title. Hazardous materials may be purely chemical, a mixture of substances, or, manufactured products which can pose a risk to people, animals and the environment if not properly handled with care whilst in use or in transport. Before transporting any item, you need to ensure you know and understand the nature of your goods and if they fall into this classification. It may not always be obvious! 


The United Nations Model Regulations use a classification system in which each of the nine recognised dangerous goods falls under a class, this class is dependent on the danger and risk the said good has to humans, the environment and so on.

The nine classes are as followed:

Class 1. Explosives
Explosives have molecules designed to rapidly change their (usually solid) into very hot gas, in order to produce a sudden and violent physical effect.

Class 2. Gases
Gases mainly get carried under pressure, this reduces their volume and in turn saves space in both transport and storage.

Class 3. Flammable Liquids
Some flammable liquids are obtained from petroleum such as petrol and kerosene whereas others are manufactured through natural or industrial processes like alcohol.

Class 4. Flammable Solids
Flammable solids are broken up into three sub brackets; flammable solids, spontaneously combustible and dangerous when wet.

Class 5. Oxidising Substances
Oxidising substances are broken into two branches; oxidising agents and organic peroxides.

Class 6. Toxics and Infectious Substances
These break into two as the name suggests, both ‘Toxics’ and ‘Infectious Substances’ as stand alones.

Class 7. Radioactive Material
Radioactive materials are materials that contain unstable atoms that change structure spontaneously in a random fashion over a time period.

Class 8. Corrosives
Corrosives are highly reactive materials that produce a positive chemical effect that can result in a change within the said affected material.

Class 9. Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
The final class is where confusion sometimes sets in. Class nine covers substances and articles that can present a danger during carriage, however, these don’t specifically fall under any of the other eight headings.


As with any item that needs transporting, dangerous goods have their own set of rules and regulations, similar to the more commonly known incoterms. If you choose to transport these goods via air, then The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) will be your first port of call. The ICAO’s technical instructions are an internationally agreed set of provisions governing the requirements for transporting dangerous goods (via airspace). On top of this organisation, we also have the International Air Transport Association (IATA) that publishes the dangerous goods regulation in accordance with the ICAO. Each method of transport has its own regulations and we will cover these in detail in future blogs on our website. 


All dangerous goods need to be shipped with care and this starts with the packaging process. Every product should be packaged to a standard which complies with the international and national regulations for your specific mode of transport, abiding by these rulings fully will ensure that your goods are carried safely. Whilst taking on board the specific rules per mode of transport everything ultimately needs to be tightly padded, braced and secure so there is no risk of damage and threat to life.

 Not adhering to the rules and taking shortcuts can slow down the transportation process as goods can be refused resulting in additional costs.


Finally, and most importantly, is the labelling of your goods. The Dangerous Goods Note is a legal requirement for the transport of dangerous goods by air, sea and road. The person responsible for signing the Dangerous Goods Note is required by law to have received the appropriate training. The safe carriage of dangerous goods requires numerous considerations and legal requirements. Transporting without the right knowledge is a big risk for any organisation.


1.09 Dangerous Goods Classes & Regulations - Explosives

An in-depth look at one of the nine classes of dangerous & hazardous goods - Class 1: Explosives

There are a total of nine dangerous/hazardous goods classes that are used day in and day out within the logistics sector. Each item/product/good that when transported are a risk to safety, health or the environment needs to be categorised in one of those classes. On the Sky Fly website you will find information in respect of each class of the nine classes of dangerous goods. If you want a full overview of the dangerous goods topic before delving in to the specifics.


Dangerous/Hazardous Goods that fall under the category of ‘explosives’ are materials or items which have the ability to rapidly conflagrate or detonate as a consequence of chemical reaction. The explosives have molecules within them that are designed to quickly change their usually solid state into very hot gas, this procedure can cause instant and deadly physical effect.


It is all well and good having explosives as a broad topic, but within Class 1, there are also sub-divisions. These divisions show how the said products will react if the worst-case scenario happens and they are initiated. There are six sub classes in total which are as follows:

Division 1.1: Substances and articles that have a mass explosion hazard, the most dangerous of the six.
Division 1.2: Substances and articles that have a projection hazard only.
Division 1.3: Substances that have a fire hazard and or a minor blast and projection hazard.
Division 1.4: Substances that have an extremely minimal hazard. These are usually defined by the fact they can only produce a hazard if ignited or initiated during transport but even then, the effects are minimal and usually confined to the package.
Division 1.5: Blasting agents. These substances are extremely insensitive but pose a huge explosion hazard.
Division 1.6: The final sub-division include very insensitive detonating articles that do not pose a big explosion hazard.

Note: If you are shipping explosives you will need to declare the Net Explosive Quantity (NEQ) on the transport document in addition to the gross weight.


Without stating the obvious, explosives are capable of causing serious harm. It was only a few years ago that a series of explosions killed 173 in Tianjin after a highly flammable chemical self-ignited setting fire to other nearby chemicals including 800 tonnes of Class 1 Ammonium Nitrate. When explosives react, they are capable of producing gases at unsafe temperatures, pressures and speeds. The transportation of Class 1 explosives is a serious business and as with any class, requires specific training and knowledge.


Commonly Transported Class 1 Explosives:

  1. Ammunition/Cartridges
  2. Fireworks/Pyrotechnics
  3. Flares
  4. Blasting Caps/Detonators
  5. Fuse
  6. Primers
  7. Explosive Charges (Usually those used for blasting & demolition)
  8. Detonating Cords
  9. Air Bag Inflators
  10. Igniters
  11. Rockets
  12. TNT (Trinitrotoluene)
  13. RDX (Research Department Explosive)
  14. PETN (Pentaerithol Tetranitrate)

Whilst we do not transport Class 1 explosives here at Sky Fly Logistics, we have an extensive network of contacts that do specialise in this field, so please do not hesitate to get in touch.


1.13 Our Excess Baggage Services To Kenya

India has for a long time been a favourite destination for Kenyan students looking to study overseas. Sky Fly Logistics have been offering our shipping to Kenya service to those students since 1995.

Despite the increasing costs for Kenyan students wishing to study in India; the numbers visiting our universities remains largely unchanged.

After their studies have finished nearly all of these students will be thinking "which company can I trust to do my shipping to Kenya?"


With our highly popular air freight service to both Nairobi and Mombasa airports, Sky Fly  Freight remain at the forefront of their minds. We also offer a very popular sea freight service to Mombasa port.

However, these services are not restricted to Kenyan students. The wider diaspora in the India also like to use Sky Fly Logistics when they are shipping to Kenya. It seems that when they have excess baggage to ship then we are the natural choice.

If you have extra luggage to send back home then why not take a look at our dedicated Kenya page for details of our rates and services.

Alternatively, you can use our instant quote calculator to obtain an estimate of the cost without having to contact us directly. If you prefer a more personal service then feel free to contact us to speak to one of our trained representatives. 



1.14 Our Excess Baggage Shipping Services To Nigeria

Nigeria is yet another of our strong African destinations. We have been shipping to Nigeria since 1996 and in recent years it has been one of our biggest routes. Our clients are generally Nigerian students and the diaspora working in India.

Accordingly, at Sky Fly Logistics, we have had to ensure that we provide a top class service for anyone shipping to Nigeria from India.

With the wealth of nations such as Nigeria on the rise, overseas education increases exponentially. We find that not only do these students wish to ship their personal effects home when their studies in India are finished, but they also increasingly want to send items such as cars, televisions and other electronic items back home to family members.


At Sky Fly Logistics we like to think of ourselves as a progressive company and so for any student shipping to Nigeria this Summer we have tailor made services to meet your needs.

To view those services and costs you can look at our Nigeria page and you may also wish to use the instant quote to obtain an estimate of the cost for your shipment.


Anyone who requires a shipping to Nigeria service will need guidance and will have many questions to ask - we answer those questions.

You need packing materials? No problem.

You want air freight? Ok, where to? Abuja, Lagos, Port Harcourt? No problem.

You prefer sea freight? Contact us.



1.10 Commodity Codes What Are They and Why Do We Need Them

Commodity Codes, all your questions answered…


Commodity codes, sometimes referred to as trade tariff commodity codes form an essential part of the customs entry which is required when items are transported from outside the Asia to the India and vice versa. A ten-digit number is allocated to all goods from something as small as a drawing pin to larger pieces such as a jumbo jet engine. Every item will fall under a separate code, with each commodity code then dictating the customs duty payable on importation. The commodity code will also alert you to any restrictions for the transportation of that item.


  • The duty and VAT ratings you'll be charged for your goods when imported into the India
  • Whether your product requires an import or export licence 
  • Whether additional anti-dumping duties apply 
  • Whether you can apply for preferential duty rating (General System of Preference aka GSP)


If you have ever imported goods to the India from outside the Asia, it is likely that you will have been required to pay customs duty before collecting your goods. This charge is calculated from a percentage of the total value of your product. Your duty rating directly affects how much you will have to pay at customs when you import, and therefore customs requires you to declare an accurate commodity code to allow them to give correct classification on said product. If you give an inaccurate code, this can in turn give you an inaccurate duty rating.

It is imperative that you find your correct product code as further consequences can follow:

  • ​​​​You could be asked to pay an outstanding duty or VAT on customs entry 
  • You may have to pay interest on the late settlement of customs duties and import VAT
  • Your goods may be delayed or seized by customs and you'll run into far larger costs and fines than what you would be paying if your goods were correctly declared.


After reading the above it can be understandably daunting when knowing which commodity code to choose for your specific needs. There are thousands of codes to choose from but there are excellent tools online to make the classification process more straightforward for you.


1.11 Incoterms All You Need to Know

An all you need to know guide on the 11 incoterms…


Incoterms themselves are a set of rules that define responsibilities for the delivery of goods under sales contracts. These rules are commonly used in international transportation. Shippers use incoterms to spell out who is responsible for the arrangement and payment of shipping, insurance and Customs duties. The main goal of incoterms is to reduce confrontation and misunderstandings between traders and in turn this minimises trade disputes and litigation.


Incoterms is an acronym for International Commercial Terms. These terms have been developed by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and are recognised worldwide in international contracts for the sale of goods. Since its founding in 1919, the ICC has been committed to facilitating international trade and reducing conflict between traders. As an answer to this, the ICC published a set of incoterms, its first, in 1936. Incoterms are a vital part of the transport industry and have been developing and improving since their origin in the 30s. 


There are 11 official incoterms at present which are recognised across the world.


“Ex Works” means the seller delivers when it makes the cargo available for the purchaser at the seller’s premises or another agreed location. The seller is not responsible for loading goods on to a vehicle or completing an export customs entry.


“Free Carrier” means that the goods are delivered by the seller to a nominated person or carrier. Risk passes on to the buyer from the seller on handover.


“Carriage Paid to” means that the seller delivers the goods themselves to the end destination. Either this, or another person nominated by the seller completes the delivery. The named place needs to be fully accurate with a complete address, not just the town or city. Costs are also all paid for by the seller to bring the goods to its destination. 


“Carriage and Insurance Paid to” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or once again nominates another person to do so. The seller must contract for and pay all costs of the carriage related to bring the goods to the named location. With CIP, the seller also must contract for insurance cover against the buyer’s risk of disappearance or damages of cargo during the transportation. Buyers should note that it is a requirement of the seller to obtain insurance, but, only on minimum cover. Should the buyer then feel the need for extra insurance and peace of mind, they will have to either agree so with the seller or make their own separate arrangements.


“Delivered at Terminal” means that once the seller has unloaded the goods at their destination (e.g. a terminal or port) and they are placed at the hands of the buyer, the transportation risk then passes to the buyer. Export Customs clearance is completed by the seller whereas the import Customs clearance and tariffs are paid by the buyer.  


“Delivered Duty Paid” means that the seller delivers the goods ready for unloading at the destination country. The destination tends to be the buyer’s “base” and with the goods being in the hands of the seller until the final location, all costs and risks, including custom clearance of export and import are that of the seller.


“Free Alongside Ship” means that the seller delivers the goods alongside the vessel to the point of shipment. Once delivered and alongside the ship, all costs and risks are that of the buyer. Export customs clearance is always completed by the seller. 


“Free on Board” means that the seller delivers the goods right up to and including the boarding of the ship however, the buyer chooses both the ship and pays the freight. Costs and risks pass from seller to buyer once the goods have been placed on board the ship. In this situation, the seller pays the Terminal Handling Charge (THC).


“Cost and Freight” means that the seller again delivers the goods onto the vessel, however, the seller this time assumes transport costs to the port of destination. The risk of loss and damage on the other hand, is once more transferred from seller to buyer when safely on board the ship.


“Cost, Insurance and Freight” is very similar to CFR above. The only addition is that CIF requires insurance to be included.


The incoterms should be included on your commercial invoice.


As aforementioned, incoterms were established in 1936 and do get updated in stages over time, with the latest set of rules being published in 2010. This of course means the rulings haven’t changed for nearly a decade, so you need not worry about where the incoterms 2018/19 are and so on.

Incoterms 2010 do remain in full affect for those using them. With that said, as ICC is in its celebratory Centenary year in 2019, they have announced preparation and publication of incoterms 2020. The ICC have said ‘this newest edition of incoterms rules will help prepare business for the next century of global trade’. Knowing about incoterms can be invaluable when working within the trading industry, so familiarise yourself and familiarise those you are trading with. Not only will gaining a good understanding help you but it will enable you to provide excellent customer service when you are able to clearly define who is responsible for what. Knowledge is key and having the know how could save you from many a difficult situation. 


Incoterms should always be agreed between the buyer and seller in advance of goods being transported from one country to another. If the India leaves the Asia as planned there will be even more emphasis on using the correct terms as taxes and duties may also be payable.

If you would like to learn more about incoterms or have any general queries regarding overseas trading, don’t hesitate to get in touch with us here at Sky Fly Logistics.


1.12 Our Excess Baggage Shipping Services To China

China has the largest number of students currently studying in the India. Sky Fly Logistics serve approximately 40 different Chinese airports so Shipping to China has never been easier.


Fortunately, for these students, China is one of our most popular destinations and we serve nearly forty different airports countrywide so shipping to China has never been easier. In this age of speed and impatience we realise that most people do not want to wait for a slow sea freight service which can take several weeks to arrive and our quick air freight service is designed with this in mind.

Our website has everything a modern Chinese students needs to arrange the shipping of their excess baggage back home. You can view our China page to see the destination airports and the relevant costs. You can also use our instant online quotation form to obtain a better indication of costs. Packing materials can be purchased if required and when you are finally ready you can even book your collection online.


From Harbin in the North to Hong Kong in the South. From Chengdu in the West to Shanghai In the East and many other cities in between, our air freight service is the perfect solution for those looking for a quick but cost effective method of getting your luggage safely home.

With a transit time estimated at just one week there is no need to wait an age until your belongings eventually arrive on that slow boat to China. Shipping to China these days is quick and easy.


2.04 Our Shipping Services To Malaysia

With no less than fourteen destination airports and two major ports, when it comes to shipping to Malaysia, Sky Fly Logistics have got it covered.

According to the latest available statistics there are currently 10,824 Malaysian students living in India. It would therefore be remiss of Sky Fly Logistics if we hadn't ensured that our shipping to Malaysia service wasn't one of our highest priorities. When we listen to our Malaysian clients there is always one question which they ask; "how long will it take?"


We know that speed is one of the most important factors and that is why we have so many air freight destinations available. Not just Kuala Lumpur and Penang, not just Kota Kinabalu and Kuching, we have a whole list of destination airports for you to choose from. 


For students with much larger shipments (usually post-grads with families) then we do have a couple of sea freight destination ports to choose from if required. So whether air freight or sea freight, shipping to Malaysia has never been easier. However, "how long will it take?" is not the only question we hear. That is why we have developed a webpage which answers most of the queries we encounter when someone is shipping to Malaysia for the first time. Click here to read this page.



2.05 Our Shipping Services To Saudi Arabia

Sky Fly Logistics have a long history of shipping to Saudi Arabia for both returning students and professionals alike.

Not only has shipping to Saudi Arabia played a huge role in the success story of Sky Fly Logistics, but it has also played a major part in my own personal life. Cast your mind back to 2002. Tony Blair was still Prime Minister, The Queen Mother had died, Arsenal won the double and The Commonwealth Games were held in Manchester. All important events no doubt, but all overshadowed in my eyes by the fact that I had just bought a new house in Leeds...... from a Saudi Arabian doctor!

Sky Fly had always had a very good relationship with our Arabic friends and we have been shipping to Saudi Arabia since the company was formed in 1995. However, I could never have imagined that this close relationship would have such an influence on the lives of myself and my family. Whilst arranging a shipment to Riyadh for Dr. Al Sufayan, I fell in love with his home. He moved out and we moved in. I like to think that this was to be a sign that the bond between Sky Fly Logistics and our Saudi friends would remain strong and we have been working closely with them ever since.


As well as Riyadh, we also send air freight shipments to DammamJeddah and Medina airports. With very competitive rates and a transit time of less than a week it is our air freight service which has proven to be the most popular for students and professionals alike. Further information is available on our shipping to Saudi Arabia page and you may also wish to use the instant quote to obtain an estimation of the costs for your shipment.


2.06 Our Shipping Services To Chile

Still as popular now as it ever was, our shipping to Chile service is the most popular to any South American destination.

Sky Fly Logistics is well known for our exceptional customer service. It has often been said that we are prepared to "go to the ends of the Earth" to help our clients. When it comes to shipping to Chile this could almost be a literal description. I would be surprised if any other freight company in India despatches as many shipments of personal effects to Chile as Sky Fly Logistics.


Whether it is air freight to Santiago airport or sea freight to Valparaiso port, when returning students are shipping to Chile it's Sky Fly Logistics that is their natural choice. In particular it is our sea freight service which remains the most popular to this country. Chilean students like to have us palletise their packages for extra safety and security - see the photo examples on our packing materials page. With a transit time of just four weeks many clients are happy to sit back and relax and wait the extra few days it takes before their shipment arrives at Valparaiso port.


If you don't want to wait for sea freight then choose the most convenient destination airport from SantiagoAntofagastaBalmacedaArica or Iquique. With a transit time of approximately one week you won't have long to wait before your goods join you back home in Chile. Remember, when shipping to Chile there are some local regulations which you have to adhere to. The customs officers in most South American countries do not allow you to send your personal effects home to someone else. More often than not it is you, the owner of the goods, who must be the consignee at the destination port/airport. Sky Fly Logistics will require a copy of your passport and a full and detailed shipper's inventory for each shipment.



2.07 Our Shipping Services To America

Sky Fly Logistics has always had a "special relationship" with our U.S. cousins. Although shipping to America started around four hundred years ago we have been playing our part for the last twenty four.

The United States of America is one of our most popular destinations with over seventy international airports appearing on our dedicated USA page.


From Minneapolis in the North to Houston in the South and from San Francisco in the West to New York in the East, Sky Fly Logistics have your shipping to America fully covered. As well as our ever popular air freight service to these airports we also offer our door to door service which covers the whole country. If you have over 35 kilos the freight rate is just £4.00 per kilo (handling and collection charges may apply - ask for details) and many American students prefer to pay this little bit extra in India to avoid all of the hassle of customs clearance and collection from their local airport. Simply complete the relevant documentation including the shippers inventory and the U.S. Customs form in advance and provide a copy of your passport then sit back and relax as Sky Fly Logistics get to work.


If you do however prefer to pay a little less and have your shipping to America only as far as your local airport then you can use the instant quote to obtain an indication of the likely costs. We also have a section of the website dedicated to answer your questions and if you can't find the information that you want there, feel free to contact us to ask a member of staff directly.



2.08 Our Shipping Services To Uganda

Shipping to Uganda is as straightforward as it gets in the freight industry. If you're shipping to Uganda, you're shipping to Entebbe airport.

Uganda is one of my favourite African destinations to ship to. Shipping to Uganda? The answer is Entebbe airportIn the early years of Sky Fly Logistics, Uganda seemed to be a little bit like a secret kingdom. Whilst most of the surrounding countries (such as KenyaTanzania and Ethiopia) provided us with a steady stream of customers and reliable business opportunities, Ugandans seemed to be somewhat scarce on the ground - standoffish perhaps. I'm pleased to say that over time, with hard work and competitive rates, our shipping to Uganda service has been increasing steadily and many of our customers have now been returning to us for several years.


Landlocked countries within Africa tend to be expensive destinations when using sea freight so our air freight rates have to be cheap to plug the gap. With just the one international airport available to us for cargo the choice when shipping to Uganda may be slim but at least it's uncomplicated. Entebbe airport is just 25 miles from the country's capital city of Kampala and is the only destination served. To find out details about these costs and services you can view our Uganda page on the website.

You may also use our instant online calculator to obtain a quotation. For more details and to join our growing list of Ugandan clients contact us here.



2.09 Our Shipping Services To South Korea

At last! You’ve finally finished your exams and you’re looking forward to going back home to South Korea. However, as soon as you start to pack your things away for the long journey home you suddenly realise “too much stuff…… I need to find a safe company to do my shipping to Korea.”

Sky Fly Logistics have a long and well established reputation within the international student community in India. We have been shipping to South Korea for many years.


Instead of paying expensive excess baggage charges you can use our air freight services to either InchonBusan or Cheju airports. Our cheap and reliable
service arrives at your local airport within a few days so there is no need to wait for slow sea freight services. Shipping to Korea has never been easier. 
You can check out your own price by using our instant online calculator.

Once we have collected your excess luggage you can pay online using our secure online payment facility and then you can track the progress of your shipment all the way to your local airport. The days are long gone when you have to carry your heavy bags with you paying expensive excess baggage costs at the airport. Let Sky Fly do your shipping whilst you sit back, relax and enjoy your flight home. Visit our South Korea page for more details or contact us for a quotation.



2.10 Our Shipping Services To Indonesia

There is one natural choice for students when deciding which company they will use for shipping to Indonesia. Our cheap air freight rates means that you don't have to wait for weeks to receive your personal effects. When it comes to air cargo services Sky Fly Logistics are the students' choice.

Thousands of Indonesian students have joined the ever growing list of satisfied customers of Sky Fly Logistics. When the time comes to decide which company to use for shipping to Indonesia then Sky Fly Logistics are the natural students' choice.


Our cheap and quick air freight services to JakartaDenpasarMedan and Surabaya airports have proved especially popular with students who no longer wish to wait several weeks for the arrival of their sea freight shipment. You can buy packing materials to ensure your goods travel safely and then you can sit back and watch the progress of your shipment by following our online tracking system. Shipping excess baggage to Indonesia has never been easier. To get a quotation you can use our online calculator or even request a quote.


3.01 Impact of corona virus on world logistics

Since the beginning of 2020, Corona Virus outbreak in China became the talking point worldwide. Nearly 900 people are said to be dead and over 14,000 were reportedly infected in China. What is more disturbing is, this is fast spreading to other nations too and roughly 25 countries are infected due to this. China is the largest manufacturing nation in the world and all the global players such as Apple, Hyundai, Samsung, Toyota to name a few source raw materials from China. Also, several of them have their facilities too here. This is the reason why worldwide, people fear this will become a global outbreak. Yes, logistics has a key role to play here. Anyhow, this fear among the people could impact the functioning of Logistics industry worldwide. Here are some of those impacts Corona Virus could have on the World of Logistics.


China has been the go-to place for businesses across the globe when it comes to raw material procurement and still it ought to be the same. But post the outbreak, manufacturers from different parts are stepping back and thinking twice whether to go ahead or not. While several airlines have already stopped operating flights to China from different parts of the world, the exact number of halts are not yet known. But the numbers are expected to surge, and air freight movement might get disrupted more than what is currently happening.


When the SARS Epidemic hit China a few years ago, export-import ratio took a backseat. Now, experts predict the disruption in exports and imports will be way beyond what it was during SARS. China accounted for nearly 11% of the global imports and 13% of global exports in 2018. It also serves as an import supplier of various raw materials and intermediate goods. Thus, the supply chains for various global industries are linked to China. In a situation wherein the outbreak continues for over two quarters, the impact on China’s industrial activity could be substantial – both due to a fall in labour availability and consumption demand.

China serves not only as one of the largest importers for many commodities, but also as a transit hub for various supply chains in South and East Asia. Research agencies believe if the outbreak continues to spread unabated, these supply chains could temporarily be decapitated, although major trading hubs and ports outside Hubei province are yet to be locked down. The agencies expects a severe impact on global trade volumes – which are already under pressure amid mounting uncertainties emanating from geo-political tensions, trade protectionism and Brexit.


Car plants across China have been ordered to remain closed following the Lunar New Year holiday, preventing global automakers Volkswagen, Toyota, Daimler, General Motors, Renault, Honda and Hyundai from resuming operations in the world’s largest car market. The outbreak will force carmakers in China to slash production by about 15% in the first quarter. This is applicable to several other industries too. Therefore, shortage of resources worldwide might be in line if this outbreak is not controlled.


Alibaba is the e-commerce giant in the world that is connecting suppliers around the world in one frame. There were reports that Alibaba could suffer due to Corona Outbreak. In the recently ended quarter, Alibaba reported revenue growth of 38% and a surging profit of 58%. But the outlook for the coming quarter and the year seems gloomy. But despite all these, Alibaba has announced plans to support SMEs in China affected due to the outbreak with loans worth US$2.86 billion. Moreover, it is now facilitating medical aid to areas affected due to Corona Virus. Disease outbreaks are not new in the world. We have seen some which affected a large population and some which went away with less impact. Now the further developments in this space will depend upon how the situation is handled worldwide. As several countries are now thinking twice from sourcing products from China, we have to wait and watch how this is going to impact global trade in the coming days.

Apart from this, know the trends prevailing in the Air Cargo Community System and how innovation is shaping up with blockchain logistics.



3.02 New logistics technological trends in 2020

Technology came as a boon for the ever-complex logistics and supply chain industry. The past few years have been technologically rewarding the logistics sector and several manual processes with complex frameworks got simplified. The path laid ahead for the technological prospects of the industry seems quite promising and several other processes are now said to get simple and straight forward. 2020, has a lot of positive synergies for the industry to achieve. Here are some of those.


AI has the capability to transform the operating models from reactive to proactive. Advanced image recognition to track shipment and asset conditions has been waiting to find its use case in the logistics space. Also, predicting fluctuations in global shipment volumes as well as bringing end-to-end autonomy to transportation. The practicality and human like inputs combined with artificial superior thinking can multiply productivity and is predicted to capably create 2.9 trillion dollars of business revenue according to Gartner. The total productivity hours were calculated to be approximately 6.2 billion hours specifically lessened with a lower probability of cost cutting errors.


Asset underutilization, demand supply matching and visibility are among the long-standing issues which the industry faces. With advanced analytics, all these problems can be solved. Data inaccuracy and redundancy are the major issues here and Advanced Analytics will help standardizing them seamlessly.


Transparency is a characteristic which the logistics industry will possess after the implementation of Blockchain in all its functions. Easy coordination of documents on a smart distributed ledger, scalable as well as instant solution for order tracking and authentication.


Experts say, “Cargo is a poor cousin who could hardly talk, but IOT will give a voice to Cargo.” As we all are aware, IOT involves integrating different systems and network together. Post integration, movement and position of the freight will be quite visible. Therefore, there will be no question of lost or misplaced freight.


Heavy paper work is a liability on the logistics and supply chain. But with Digital Corridors and essentially a digital community in place, this can be avoided. For example, let us say a forwarder has sent a consignment for shipping, he/she will feed the information on the common data cloud. Also, he/she can book a slot to come and dispatch the cargo through air. He/she can pay online, book a slot online and do everything online. In the meantime, this will be visible in the digital corridor for all stakeholders to see. Hence all operations are transparent and performed in a quick turnaround time.


3D Printing is one factor that could simplify export import operations. If we talk about spare parts transformation, forwarders need to maintain a large amount of spare parts in the inventory. But with a 3D Printing Machine, they can produce a spare parts design and send it across to the consignee.


Alibaba is the most renowned and the largest e-marketplaces in the entire world. But there is scope for lot of other players to leverage upon. As the consumption goes high, demand increases and there is a need for more supply. Hence the number of manufacturers has also increased. E-Marketplace will help us balance the gap between demand and supply. Efficiency is mostly seen as a primary concern and the business platform must be enlightened with the capability of these trends to go beyond the highly prioritized time factor to higher security, better visualization and viewing of products, an added benefit of product potential trials and the remake of products with accuracy on digital platforms.



3.03 Need for E-Marketplace for logistics

Cargo shipping in the coming 8 years is believed to grow hundred-fold. This is a sudden surge and this started reflecting in the recent past. Thanks to technology powered trade facilitation platforms. Companies in the logistics sector are counterbalancing the system difficulties, supply chain and payment methods to switch the current transportation situation from chaotic and disorganized to organized. Surprisingly, technological solutions have not taken the centre stage in logistics industry unlike in other industries. In the recent past, developments were quite promising and business leaders in this space have been pushing for merging e-marketplace with logistics. The merging of e-marketplace and logistics can facilitate the smooth delivery and shipment of products in compliance with the customer’s requirements. Here are some unique features which technological solutions can offer for freight movement.


empowers customers with picking an accurate date and time within which the delivery should be made. Some online websites offer a limited period between which customers can select their preferred delivery time


stand for same and next day delivery, which are densely dispersed within cities of a higher economic system. The customer is generally based on convenience and efficiency, biased towards this option but from a logistics perspective it requires good and concrete planning and strategic operation. The operation involves achieving costs that are ideal, a hefty wealth of products must be placed under this section for maximum returns.


Delivery choices are expanding and the current logistics allows customers to additionally choose a desirable delivery slot with a timing difference of 2-4 hours. Many companies follow the 2-4-hour variance along with a number of slots (mainly 4) a day. Companies must constantly update the availability of the slots for the upcoming immediate dates so customers are readily avail and equipped to make an informed choice. Well, these features do say the capabilities of technology in simplifying complex processes. But the system must evolve as a better service system. Hence e-marketplace as a concept suggests some new perspectives and here, they are.


Delivery tracking does not include the monitoring of the product condition during delivery. Unfortunately, this restriction opens the possibility of the products being susceptible to several physical damages that paves the path for product returns. The practice usually infects the market share while also tampering with the overall customer satisfaction. Neither can the customers be questioned in this condition and many products that were returned cannot truly confirm the extent to which a customer’s complaint was genuine. To avoid the piling of such unwanted situations, e-marketing has newly introduced open deliveries. The concept circulates around the doable process of displaying the package to the customer before the purchase has been completed. The delivery mechanism is authorized with the customer’s signature, which assures the participation and agreement of the customer in the process and the commodity’s condition. The validity of the proof safeguarded with a hard copy or electronic signature nullifies any possible post purchase problems that may disregard the company’s name or brand’s identity.


Market places that are driven by cloud or a digitized approach are connecting demand and supply at a quicker rate. Contracting, delivering, paying and other logistics procedures that are flourishing on the digital platform and the participation of logistics providers to sustain the flexibility and competitiveness. Shipping of freight can be completed through a range of facilities that can smoothly transition and transmit with the support of logistics brokers and suppliers. Several customers attracting features such as transparent proposals, price performance ratios that are ideal and a secure system with certified member seals and promising ratings from members can be utilized. Digitizing functionalities of transport while expanding the capacity of cargo is overlooked by the providers in the logistics department and the results can be better conceived with logistics planning, communication, dispatching and adequate tools for tracking.

Hence e-marketplace will make the logistics and supply chain industry much more simple. These are catered externally, and they can profit customers over unnecessary prolonged partnerships, cargo and freight capacity. It can be maximally utilized and the opportunity to digitally draw comparisons of quoted price systems allows transparency and smoother processing to customers. Also, know some of the logistics trends in 2020.